What is Phase Lag and How to Measure It

Understanding phase lag is important when scanning at high speeds with piezo flexure stages. This article describes the phase relationship between the command signal and the stage response. The response is monitored using the internal (in this case capacitive) sensor. The bandwidth of a system is the key element to phase lag. Using control parameters […]

LC.300 Series Nanopositioning Controller from nPoint

The LC.300 Series Piezo Controller is the latest addition to nPoint’s nanopositioning electronics. This new closed-loop controller is designed to address OEM applications that benefit from speed, precision, and flexibility but do not require the advanced feature set of the LC.400 Piezo Controller. LC.300 Digital Controllers are designed to operate closed-loop, flexure-guided nanopositioners, with smooth […]

Nanofocusing Stages for Microscopy

ScanImage Compatibility with nPoint Nanopositioners

ScanImage was developed as a laser scanning software tool that can be used for custom microscopes. This allows the user to customize hardware for challenging applications where commercial microscopes may not be a good fit. ScanImage is an open source platform designed to integrate various hardware suppliers depending on the needs of the user. nPoint […]

piezo stage autofocus system

Using nPoint Piezo Stages with Auto Focus Systems

Auto Focus systems are developed to maintain precision focus over extended periods of time and can be used to automate image acquisition while scanning objects. Auto Focus systems combined with piezo stages can produce images with speed and precision even with varying environmental conditions. Auto Focus systems can be combined with conventional microscopes in many […]

Less than 1nm scanner bow during a 60µm scan line.

Piezo Stage Sensors for Closed-loop Control

A position sensor is necessary to provide closed-loop control for the nanopositioning system.  There are different types of sensors that can be used to provide the measuring feedback to eliminate inherent issues with piezos such as non-linearity and hysteresis.  Three common types of sensors include capacitive, strain gauge, and LVDT.  Each has advantages for certain […]


Piezo Scanner Settling Time

Settling time is defined as the time it takes for a piezo stage to move to a commanded position and settle to within 2% of its final value when performing a step response. A small signal step response reflects the dynamic characteristics of the system in greater detail. A step response for 1μm is a […]

Piezo Positioner Resolution

The term position noise or resolution is a key measurement associated with piezo stages. This measurement is a determining factor of how small a step size can be achieved (the other being controller resolution). Please note that in a piezo flexure stage the limiting factors are different than other piezo motors or stick slip piezo […]

The application of notch filters

Quadrature Interferometer Sensor Integration for Closed-loop Feedback

This article provides data that demonstrate the capability of nPoint controllers to integrate with quadrature sensor signals for closed-loop feedback. In some applications using an external sensor such as an interferometer can be essential in order to compensate for drift or maintain position in an entire system.  Adding this capability eliminates the need for internal […]

Things to Consider When Acquiring a Nanopositioning System

There are many factors to consider when looking for nanopositioning piezo stages. The following series of articles will help explain some items that are important when looking at different stages and systems. Those who are new to the world of nanopositioning, please contact us with any additional questions. There are different types of “nanopositioners” on […]

What does bandwidth mean?

Bandwidth is the frequency at which the actual oscillation amplitude is attenuated by -3dB from the commanded oscillation amplitude. This is approximately equal to the frequency at which the actual oscillation amplitude attenuates by 30% from the commanded oscillation amplitude. The bandwidth has to be tested with small driving signal, which guarantees that the attenuation […]