What is Phase Lag and How to Measure It

Understanding phase lag is important when scanning at high speeds with piezo flexure stages. This article describes the phase relationship between the command signal and the stage response. The response is monitored using the internal (in this case capacitive) sensor. The bandwidth of a system is the key element to phase lag. Using control parameters […]

LC.300 Series Nanopositioning Controller from nPoint

The LC.300 Series Piezo Controller is the latest addition to nPoint’s nanopositioning electronics. This new closed-loop controller is designed to address OEM applications that benefit from speed, precision, and flexibility but do not require the advanced feature set of the LC.400 Piezo Controller. LC.300 Digital Controllers are designed to operate closed-loop, flexure-guided nanopositioners, with smooth […]

How do you achieve “closed-loop?”

Our nanopositioners use piezo actuators to generate motion. The expansion of a piezo actuator is normally proportional to the driving voltage. In an open-loop system a linear voltage is applied for motion control. However, piezo actuators exhibit nonlinearity, hysteresis and creeping, which will be translated as positioning errors in the positioning system. The term “closed-loop” […]